vinegar

Vinegar has been known for centuries. It is simply a dilute solution of water and acetic acid that contains coloring and flavoring agents in very small quantities from source of raw material. A typical distilled vinegar contains 95% of water and rest is acetic acid , minor constituents.

It is made by two successive microbial processes,

  • first being an alcoholic fermentation effected by yeasts and the
  • second an oxidation of alcohol by Acetobacter, a genus of aerobic bacteria.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulation states that the unmodified name vinegar apply only to the product derived from apples and that this product contain not less than 4 g of acetic acid in 100 ml of vinegar.

Vinegar also contains small quantities of ash, sugars, phosphoric acid, alcohol, and glycerol.

Vinegar is made by two process;

  1. The packed generator; and
  2. Submerged fermentation system.

Air is used in both process.

Fermentation :

The fermentation of sugar into alcohol (ethanol) and which comprises the first step in manufacturing of vinegar using the yeast Saccharomyces sp, which proceeds as follow:

C6H12O6 ——-> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 (sugar source) (Ethyl Alcohol) (Carbon Dioxide)

The second fermentation step requires the microorganism acetobacter (Bacterium aceti) and oxygen as indicated below:

2C2H5OH + 2O2 ———> 2CH3COOH + 2H2O (Ethyl Alcohol) (Oxygen) (Acetic Acid) (Water)

FYI
Malt vinegar is used extensively in Britain, and wine vinegar in continental Europe.
Distilled white vinegar and cider vinegar is preferred in USA and Canada.

Types of Vinegar:

There are six type vinegar is used throughout the world.

  1. Distilled White or Grain or Spirit Vinegar: It is produced from the natural fermentation of dilute alcohol to vinegar. The vinegar is filtered and contains Natural mellow aroma.
  2. Apple Cider Vinegar: It is produced from unprocessed apple juice and vinegar retains its natural amber color and fruity flavor.
  3. Wine Vinegar: Wine vinegar is produced from Burgandy wine and other wines.It retains a ruby color and wine like flavor. It is used in Oil-Vinegar Dressing and gourmet cooking and condiments.
  4. Corn (Maize) sugar Vinegar: This type of vinegar is produced from corn sugar. Sugar is first converted to alcohol then alcohol is converted to acetic acid and water. It is also a amber color vinegar.
  5. Malt Vinegar: Malt vinegar is produced from the fermentation of malt to alcohol and then it is converted to vinegar.
  6. Specialty Vinegar such as Balsamic Vinegar: Balsamic vinegar is produced in Modena Italy from white and sugary Trebbiano grapes with special labor intensive method to special flavor and aroma There is possibility of left over wine in this vinegar.

Halal Status of vinegar:

There is a different of opinion among Hanafi and Shafi fiqa schools regarding vinegar.

There is also different of opinion among Islamic Scholars regarding wine vinegar. Since there is possibility of wine being not 100% converted to acetic acid and water.

There is left over wine in the wine vinegar, we consider wine vinegar not a Halal vinegar. We recommend distilled white vinegar because it is made from dilute alcohol. Please consult your sheik or Imam on this topic.


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